Filed under: Uncategorized
….But Not very Far.
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Filed under: Nerdy News
Sorry for the recent lack of posts….I’ve been back in the classroom and away from the blog, trying to convince a large group of non-majors why biology is cool. Here are a few headlines that distracted me from doing actual work caught my eye this week:
- Stars of the deep: A biological voyage to the unexplored water of the Mid-Atlantic range just returned and revealed a wealth of unexplored biodiversity — including a rare basket star, a swimming sea cucumber and a moutaineering sea cucumber, an electric blue worm and a blind, brainless, purple, primitive worm that me be the link between those of us with backbones and those of us without.
- Still gushing: As of today (Sunday), it’s been a horrible 83 days since BP ruined the Gulf. The flow of oil is currently unimpeded as BP attempts to install a new cap. If you’re in a good mood today and hope to maintain that happy feeling, then do not click here to read the projected path of the oil over the next 365 days (Mom: it might be a good time to sell your NY beach house).
- The Secret Love Life of Fireflies: The spectacular display of fireflies has a purpose — they produce bioluminescence as a mating tool where males cruise around looking for chicks while displaying a very specific pattern of flashes. In fact, some fireflies do this synchronously, sometimes lighting up a whole forest all at once (spectacular!), and now we have evidence that this complex behavior helps females to recognize males of her own species by “eliminating the visual clutter” of other flashing males. Check it out in this week’s issue of Science.
- Another Reason to Step Away From the Computer: Go for a “Forest Bath”. Forest Bathing has become a popular therapeutic practice in Japan, and scientists are finding that being amongst plants decreases pulse rate and lowers blood pressure and may even increase white blood cells. Of course this could be linked to stress reduction, but scientists are proposing that is is related to phytoncides — airborne chemicals that plants emit to protect them from rotting and insects.
- Help the Itty Bitty Kitty’s: Consider heading over to my favorite blog and taking Butterbean’s Daily Donation Challenge to support the Tacoma Humane Society.
Actually, he is a paralarval squid that is found in the North Atlantic Ocean. The polka dots that add to his cuteness are actually chromatophores — a special type of pigment-containing, light-reflecting cell that helps certain animals (fishes, cephalopods, amphibians, crustaceans) to camouflage or communicate.
Once again, Fungi may come to the rescue! A study published by Strobel et al. found that the endophyte Gliocladium roseum produces a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons and derivatives that closely resemble those found in fossil fuels. Dr. Strobel has been called the “Indiana Jones of Fungus Hunters” because of his forays into the wild to search for for fungi with novel bioactive compounds. This biofuel-producing endophyte was discovered living in trees the Patagonian rainforest. According to Strobel, the combination of fuel substances produced by G. roseum are unique and promising. Even better is that this fungus is producing hydrocarbons directly from cellulose — a far better source of biofuel than anything we use at the moment. I look forward to the day that I can power up my car with this “myco-diesel!
Endophytes are sneaky little buggers. Relatively little is known about them because they live their life hidden inside plants (more specifically, in between plant cells!). But unlike pathogens, they do not produce symptoms or signs to alert us to their presence. They are extremely common (found in almost every plant species we’ve looked for them in) but their relationships with plants are not well understood. They might be good for their plant partners — they can create a barrier to keep attackers at bay. Or, they can be bad for their plant partners — plant leaves with lots of endophytes tend to lose a greater amount of water.
Why be a fungus hunter? Endophytes are a major source of bioactive compounds, including antiobiotics. For example, Dr. Strobel discovered a specimen that grows on the Yew tree that produced Taxol, the world’s first billion- dollar anti-cancer drug.
(oh, and by the way, taxol can be isolated from both the plant AND the fungus, suggesting some horizontal gene transfer is going on here!)
Click here to read about some of the other compounds produced by endophytic microbes that have been studied in Strobel’s lab.
A litter of 3 mountain lions (Puma concolor) was born late last month in the Santa Monica Mountains….the first documented litter in 6 years!!! The National Park Service has been tracking a population of about 19 mountain lions in the Santa Monica Mountains, Simi Hills and Santa Susana Mountains to better understand how they live amidst so much development.
The birth of the kittens is exciting for reasons other than just cuteness. Their father made headlines in spring of 2009 after he successfully crossed (over? under?) Highway 101 to enter the mountains last spring…..bringing new genetic material along with him. Here in Southern California, there is limited open space and a serious lack of wildlife crossings that allow for safe passage to other wild areas to the north and west. This can lead to conflicts over territory and often results in inbreeding within the confined mountain lion population….so the “new genetic material” is a welcome contribution. The National Park Service is informing project proposals that are currently under way to establish a safe and effective wildlife crossing point (a.k.a. habitat corridor) under Highway 101.
Filed under: Threats to biodiversity
*Data from U.S Fish and Wildlife Service
I’ve been working on my husband for quite some time now to let me adopt a dog. This week’s reason is that I would feel oh-so-much safer in the house on those long lonely nights when he is fishing until midnight. He’s entirely unconvinced. We all know about the variety of jobs that our domesticated friend can perform for us — rescue dogs search for missing persons, seeing-eye dogs help the blind….on a recent trip to Mexico I watched a dog walk the conveyor belt sniffing every piece of luggage for the faint trace of blood. These feats aren’t enough to convince my hubby…..but wait! There’s more! Biologists are now working with dogs to solve a variety of scientific dilemmas.
Looking to initiate an invasive plant management strategy?? Set this guy loose at your site.
A study just published in Invasive Plant Science and Management showed that trained dogs outperformed humans in their ability to detect invasive plant species. This weed outcompetes native plant species and causes both ecosystem and economic destruction, but it is often difficult to control the plant if you can’t find it! Enter Fido! Dogs are more accurate than humans (overall success rate of 81% compared to humans 59%) at locating the invasive week and could find it from much greater distance.
Kincaid’s Lupine, a rare, endangered, Oregonian plant, is the one plant on which the endangered Fender’s blue butterfly will lay its eggs.Conservationist have been working with the belgian sheepdog Rogue to spot this endangered plant and the tiny eggs laid there by the blue butterfly. Rogue and his buddies made only 5 errors in a total of 378 plots.
Of course the possibilities are endless. “EcoDogs” are being used to sniff out a variety of different endangered species – plants and animals alike! Sophie, a 15-month-old black Labrador retriever, is trained to find scat from eastern spotted skunks, while Bishop, a 3-year-old black Labrador retriever, is trained to find scat from striped skunks in Alabama. Both have been trained through EcoDogs, a collaborative organization that trains “detection dogs for ecological research”.
If you happen to be on the Puget Sound this summer and see Gator with a stiff body, mouth open, tail erect, and nose twitching it’s because he just smelled a killer whale pooping nearby! Gator’s first class nose can also detect black bear, grizzly bear, lynx, bobcat, puma, maned wolf, wolverine, fisher, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and crack —and all he wants in return is to play with his ball.
Dogs have also been reported to sniff out low blood sugar and skin cancer. They can identify prostate cancer from urine samples. A study published in Intergrative Cancer Therapies in 2006 report that, in a matter of weeks, “ordinary” household dogs could be trained to accurately distinguish breath samples of both lung and breast cancer patients from those who were cancer-free.
Now, if you were my husband….wouldn’t you be convinced???
Oh, and if you’re ready to adopt a dog, check your local shelter or animal rescue! If you’re here in orange county check out Friends of Orange County’s Homeless Pets.